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This site is intended for US Healthcare Professionals only.

S1P
Sphingosine-1-phosphate

S1P
Sphingosine-1-phosphate

Overview

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingolipid metabolite formed through sphingosine phosphorylation by way of sphingosine kinases.1 S1P regulates several physiological processes including lymphocyte trafficking, cardiac function, and vascular tone. These activities are mediated through interaction of S1P with five G-protein coupled receptors (S1P1-5 receptors) that have an effect on diverse cell types including lymphocytes, atrial myocytes, endothelial cells as well as other cell types.2

In lymphoid tissue, S1P binds to S1P1 on the surface of lymphocytes. Triggered by an S1P gradient, B and T lymphocytes exit lymphoid tissue and enter circulation.4 S1P signaling does not affect subsets of lymphocytes that do not travel through the lymphoid tissue, and thus remain in circulation for immune surveillance against infections and tumors.2 Lymphocytes (including B and T cells) play a critical role in regulating proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity.3

S1P Pathway

References

  1. Tsai H, Han MH. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) and S1P Signaling Pathway: Therapeutic Targets in Autoimmunity and Inflammation. Drugs. 2016;76(11):1067-1079.
  2. Scott FL, Clemons B, Brooks J, et al. Ozanimod (RPC1063) is a potent sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) and receptor-5 (S1P5) agonist with autoimmune disease-modifying activity. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173:1778-1792.
  3. Fraussen J, de Bock L, Somers V. B cells and antibodies in progressive multiple sclerosis: contribution to neurodegeneration and progression. Autoimmun Rev. 2016;15:896-899.
  4. Nielsen OH, Li Y, Johansson-Lindbom B, Coskun M. Sphingosine-1-phophate signaling in inflammatory bowel disease. Trends Mol Med. 2017;23(4):362-374.